More information

Australia is a culturally diverse, racially tolerant society that welcomes and offers opportunity to those who wish to settle there. From the vast landscape, 7000 beaches and the exotic flora and fauna to the cosmopolitan cities, Australia is a beautiful and varied place of contrasts, and a vital destination for business development and growth in the 21st Century. Boasting world standard universities, education, and a health system that receives considerable government funding, Australia enjoys economic and political stability, and a legal system based in Common Law.

Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have an enormously diverse and complex culture that traces its roots back at least 40,000 years. Since British settlement in Australia in 1788, Aboriginal people have suffered systematic and discriminatory measures. Only recently has the Australian government begun to deal with elements of its discriminatory history with legislation including the Native Title Act, which theoretically can return crown land to their rightful Aboriginal owners. However, legal proceedings have shown the limitations of such legislation.

Since 1945 nearly 7.5 million people from over 160 countries migrated to Australia. More than 80% of Australian residents are born outside Australia enhancing the existing multicultural population. Between July 2017 and June 2018, the Australian government issued approximately 162,000 immigration visas.

Full country name: Commonwealth of Australia

Federation of States and Territories: January 1 1901

Population of Australia according to its states (as of Feb 2024)

New South Wales pop: 8.41 million Capital City – Sydney pop: 5.185 million

Victoria pop: 6.929 million Capital City – Melbourne pop: 5.316 million

South Australia pop: 1.881 million Capital City – Adelaide pop: 1.379 million

Queensland pop: 5.54 million Capital City -Brisbane pop: 2.536 million

Western Australia pop: 2.897 million Capital City – Perth pop: 2.143 million

Tasmania pop: 585,000 Capital City – Hobart pop: 189,870


Australian Capital Territory 478,000 Capital City – Canberra pop: 475,000

Northern Territory pop: 257,000 Capital City Darwin pop: 148,116

Area: 7.688 million km²

Population: 26.6 million

Capital city: Canberra (pop: 475,000)

People: European descent – 90%, Asian – 7%, Aboriginal – 2.5%

Languages: English, secondary languages: various Aboriginal, European, and Asian languages

Currency: Australian Dollar ($A) $A 1 = $ U.S. 0.66 (as at Feb 2024)

Religion: Christian – 43.9%, Muslim – 3.2%, Hinduism – 2.7%, Buddhist – 2.4%, Jewish – 0.4%

Government: Independent member of the British Commonwealth

Prime Minister: Mr. Anthony Albanese since 22 May 2022

Head of State: Governor-General Designate (British Queen’s representative): David Hurley Since 2019

Army: Voluntary – The Royal Australian Army consists of professional soldiers only

Weekend: 2 days – Saturday, Sunday

Major Industries: Minerals, oil, coal, gold, wool, cereals, meat, tourism


The impressive performance of the Australian economy over the past decade, the so called “Australian Miracle”, is marked by clear economic growth, low inflation (4.1% for the year 2023), low unemployment rates and low interest rates.  The Australian economy is liberated from the shackles of regulation, it is open and competitive, and assisted by a dynamic private sector. Australia has a flexible skilled labour force, and many natural resources.

Fast Facts:

Increase job creation: 3% per year (2023)

Unemployment: 3.9% ( December 2023)

14.5% of the labor force are in healthcare and social assistance (2021)

9.1% of the labor force are involved in retail trade (2021)

8.9% of the labor force is involved in construction (2021)

8.8% of the labor force is involved in education and training (2021)

7.8% of the labor force is involved in professional, scientific, and technical services (2021)

5.9% of the labor force is involved in manufactioring (2021)

2.3% of the labor force is involved in agriculture, forestry and fishing (2021)

Employed persons are guaranteed:

The right to join unions, good working conditions, minimum wages, pension, overtime, sick leave and vacation.

The Australian labor market is highly competitive and the wages are one of the highest in the world, though the cost of living is also high.


The Australian government has placed taxes on goods and services (GST). This is a broad tax base of 10% on most goods and services you buy, which are included in the price marked.

The Corporate tax rate is 25%-30%, and the highest tax rate on the income of an individual is 45%, the taxes are progressive (according to income tax brackets).

The average disposable salary (after tax) is AUD $5,348 per month (2023).

Jewish Community

The Australian Jewish community can be traced to the first European settlers in 1788 and is the largest in the Asian region. Today, Australia possesses a vibrant Jewish community of approximately 110,000 whom, predominantly live in Melbourne and Sydney, but smaller communities are scattered throughout the country in places such as Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, the Gold Coast, Perth, and even in Hobart. In recent years the Former Soviet Union and South Africa have been the principal sources of immigration.

Approximately 50 per cent of the Jewish community is Holocaust survivors, their descendants or have close relatives amongst the victims of the Nazi Genocide. Australian Jewry holds the highest percentage of Holocaust survivors of any other Jewish community in the world.

The leading communal organization is the Executive Council of Australian Jewry. Jewish Australians are concerned with promoting continued involvement in the Jewish community and have many Jewish avenues including: two Jewish weekly newspapers (the Melbourne and Sydney editions of the Australian Jewish News); each week Australia’s ethnic radio stations feature several hours of programming of Jewish interest in English, Hebrew, and Yiddish; Maccabi Australia fostering Jewish sporting activity; Zionist and religious youth groups; over 100 synagogues affiliated with all major religious movements throughout Australia; mikveot, kosher butchers, bakers, and restaurants. There are also two kosher hotels in Melbourne and new Jewish museums in both Sydney and Melbourne.

All events, synagogues, organizations and everything you need to know about the Jewish community in Australia is available at:

What makes the Australian Jewish community most distinguishable from other English-speaking Jewish communities is its high rate of enrollment in Jewish day schools (75% of all primary school pupils and 55% of all high school pupils) and relatively low rate of intermarriage. Although this rate is increasing, it is still much lower than anywhere else in the Western world.

Australian Jewish days schools with websites include:

Perth: Carmel School –

Gold Coast: King Solomon College –

Brisbane: Sinai College –


The King David School (Reform) –

Beth Rivka Ladies’ College (Orthodox) –

Yeshiva Men’s College (Orthodox) –

Adass Israel School (Ultra Orthodox) – #972395236422

Sholem Aleichem College –

Leibler Yavneh College (Modern Orthodox) –

Bialik College –

Mount Scopus Memorial College –

Doncaster Jewish Day School –


Kesser Torah –

Masada College –

Moriah College –

Mount Sinai College –

Emanuel School –

Settling in


The Australian education system is divided broadly into five areas:

1) Preschool (up to age 5).

2) Primary School (years 1-6).

3) Secondary/High School/Secondary Colleges (years 7-12).

4) Career and Vocational Training.

5) University or other tertiary institutions.

School is compulsory until the age of 15 (in some states in Australia until the age of 17) and the language of instruction is English. It should be noted that there is a private school system (fees payable) and a public school system (no fees or minimal fees payable). Jewish schools are part of the private school system.

Several English language programs cater for adults and children with varying competency levels. For children, there are a number of programs within the school system. The government’s “English as a second language – new arrivals” scheme assists primary and secondary school students who require intensive language tuition. The Adult English Migration Program (AMEP) consists of morning and evening classes of 510 hours of English instruction.

For more information:

The Australian Government operates an Overseas Student Program (OSP) for all non- Australian citizens and permanent residents who wish to study in Australia. Student visas are only granted to those undertaking a registered course (or part of) on a full-time basis.

More information on studying in Australia:

Health care

Australia has a highly subsidized health care system – Medicare – that is accessible to all permanent residents and provides help with medical expenses and hospital care. Medicare also subsidizes medicines. There is also an extensive private health system, for those wishing to pay an additional fee to receive extra benefits including optical and dental treatment.

A green plastic Medicare card printed with the holder’s name (and that of any other eligible family members) and the individual Medicare number, is used when visiting a doctor, the hospital as a public patient or claiming benefits at a Medicare office. ‘Direct billing’ or ‘bulk billing’ is when the doctor charges Medicare directly and the patient pays nothing. Some doctors do bill patients, and the Medicare benefit of up to 85 per cent is claimed later. Medicare pays consultation fees for general practitioners, specialists, special tests, examinations and public hospital services. If you opt to go into hospital (public or private) as a private patient you can choose which doctor will treat you with Medicare paying up to 75 per cent of the fee. Some or all, of the remaining fee, can be covered by private health insurance.

More information on healthcare in Australia:


Most Australians live within 50 kilometers of the coast in large cities or towns. Indeed, approximately 87 per cent of the population lives in urban areas along the seaboard. Sydney and Melbourne host 40.2% (5,031,195 million people in Melbourne, 5,297,089 million people in Sydney as of 2023) of the country’s population whilst other state capitals such as Adelaide, Brisbane and Perth attract populations of approximately 1-2.6 million each. In these larger cities there is a wide range of housing available.

67% of households in Australia own their current home, either with or without a mortgage (37% and 30% respectively)-one of the largest proportions of any nation. A further 31% of households are renting, with 26% of these households renting from a private landlord and 3% renting from a State or Territory housing authority landlord. Houses with backyards with parks and shopping centers nearby, within one hour’s travel of city centers are the dominant way of life, although inner city, apartment living has become more popular in recent years. Buses, trains and trams make commuting very accessible, and are relatively inexpensive. Housing is of a high standard and affordable in comparison to other countries.

Properties for rent are advertised in the ‘To Let’ section of newspapers. To secure a property, you will need a security bond (refundable deposit equal to one months rent) plus a payment of several weeks rent which has to be paid in advance. In most cases you will also be required to provide two ‘references’. Homes for sale are usually advertised in newspapers, especially on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Banks and other financial institutions such as building societies, credit unions or similar organizations may lend funds for you to purchase or build a property to live in. Interests rates on mortgage loans hover between 4.5 and 8% as at June 2023 (slightly higher in Sydney than in Melbourne) for owner/occupier homes, and dependent on the mortgage institution and general loan interest rates. Investments loans have similar interest rates.

More information on the various mortgage lenders:


Australians love their leisure time and visit sights stretching from the tropical far north Queensland and Northern Territory, to the cool temperate climate of the south. Beautiful beaches abound both the eastern and western coasts and Australians are active in a wide variety of sports from surfing to skiing. Additionally, Australia possesses some of the world’s great wilderness areas. Even though distances are great, efficient, fast and reasonably priced transport connects all capital cities and regional centers. Australians enjoy a sophisticated culture of opera, ballet, art, music and museums, and have produced some of the best restaurants and wine in the world.

Useful links

Australia and Immigration:

The Government


Social Security

Customs & Quarantine




Education System

Media Outlets

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation Online:

The Australian, Australia’s national daily newspaper:

The Age, Melbourne’s daily newspaper:

The Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney’s daily newspaper:

Tourism and Leisure

Learn more